The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal dynasties established control over Turkey, Iran, and India respectively, in large part due to a Chinese invention: gunpowder. [7] He left his son an internally stable state, which was in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge. Mughal Empire Strengths And Weaknesses. Babur was a direct descendant of the Timurid Emperor Tamerlane on his father's side, and the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan on his mother's side. [14] Aurangzeb's son, Shah Alam, repealed the religious policies of his father, and attempted to reform the administration. He had some success in extending the Mughal Empire into the Deccan states (the states of the Indian peninsula), but he is known today primarily as a builder. Aurangzeb suppressed most of these uprisings, but doing so strained the military and financial resources of the imperial government. Akbar's son Jahangir executed the fifth … He presided over the Mughal Empire at its widest geographical extent, pushing the southern border down the Deccan peninsula all the way to Tanjore. The Mughal rulers were also effective warriors and military leaders (Wiesner-Hanks, 91). Akbar hunting, c. late 16th century; in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Two years later he went so far as to arrange for the assassination of his father’s closest friend and adviser, Abu al-Fazl. Besides their wives, they also had a number of concubines in their harem, who produced children. Babur is also remembered for his autobiography, the Baburnamah, which gives a cultured and witty account of his adventures and the fluctuations of his fortunes, with observations on nature, society, and politics in the places he visited. He made settlements with the Marathas, tranquilised the Rajputs, and became friendly with the Sikhs in the Punjab. [7], During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to break up, and vast tracts of central India passed from Mughal to Maratha hands. [14] A further problem for Aurangzeb was the army had always been based upon the land-owning aristocracy of northern India who provided the cavalry for the campaigns, and the empire had nothing equivalent to the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire. In the year 1719 alone, four emperors successively ascended the throne". At its peak the kingdom stretched to 3.2 million square kilometres, including parts of what are now India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughal nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers: (i)The Mughal nobility were the main pillars of Mughal state (ii)The Mughal nobility was chosen from different groups, both religiously and ethnically so as to ensure a balance of power between the various groups. Take a look at Table 1 once again. The major Mughal emperors were: Babur (r. 1526-30) Humayun (r. 1530-56) Akbar (r. 1556-1605) His second triumph was brief—in 1501 he was resoundingly defeated in battle by Muhammad Shaybani Khan, losing the coveted city along with his native principality of Fergana. The Battle of Panipat marks the beginning of the Mughal Empire. Religious tensions and heavy taxes on agriculture led to rebellions. They had diplomatic relationships and conflicts with the neighbouring political powers. Here are the main facts on the six major Mughal emperors in Indian history. [14] This system was not only expensive, but also made the army somewhat inflexible as the assumption was always the enemy would retreat into a fortress to be besieged or would engage in a set-piece decisive battle of annihilation on open ground. Titular figurehead under British protection. The Mughal rulers gave this work, of writing accounts of their achievements, to their court historiAnswer:These accounts recorded all the events of the emperor’s reign. The Mughal Empire reached the peak of its fame during Shah Jahan’s reign and he is widely considered to be one of the greatest Mughal emperors. The sixth Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb also known by his regnal name Alamgir, ruled over the Indian subcontinent for over 49 years. The subahs were established by padshah (emperor) Akbar during his administrative reforms of 1572–1580; initially, they numbered 12, but his conquests expanded the number of subahs to 15 by the end of his reign. [7] Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing West Asian cultural influence in the Mughal court. Their military used new weapons, hence the empire being called a gunpowder empire (Wiesner-Hanks, 91). Humayun’s son Akbar (reigned 1556–1605) is often remembered as the greatest of all Mughal emperors. Zahir al-Din Muhammad (throne name Babur) was a fifth-generation descendant of the Turkic conqueror Timur, whose empire, built in the late 14th century, covered much of Central Asia and Iran. The Mughal emperors took many high-sounding titles like Shahenshah, Jahangir, Shah Jahan to reiterate their claims on territorial and political control. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him. The cost of maintaining the court, however, began to exceed the revenue coming in.[7]. [1][2] Akbar, for instance, was half-Persian (his mother was of Persian origin), Jahangir was half-Rajput and quarter-Persian, and Shah Jahan was three-quarters Rajput. [14] Furthermore, the fact that at the conclusion of the conquest of the Deccan, Aurangzeb had very selectively rewarded some of the noble families with confiscated land in the Deccan had left those aristocrats who received no confiscated land as reward and for whom the conquest of the Deccan had cost dearly, feeling strongly disgruntled and unwilling to participate in further campaigns. Interestingly, he was believed to be a descendant of the great Genghis Khan. By the time of Babur’s death in 1530, he controlled all of northern India from the Indus to Bengal. The Mughal Empire, descendants from the Mongol Empire of Turkestan in the 15th century, ruled the majority of India and Pakistan during the 16th and 17th centuries. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him executed. Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb stand out as the most prominent Mughal kings. He embarked on a series of military campaigns to extend his boundaries, and some of his toughest opponents were the Rajputs, fierce warriors who controlled Rajputna (now Rajasthan). [3], During the reign of Aurangzeb, the empire, as the world's largest economy, worth over 25% of global GDP, controlled nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Chittagong in the east to Kabul and Baluchistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri River basin in the south. This made it possible for Akbar to deal with Rajput chiefs individually instead of confronting them as a united force. From Kabul, which he had occupied in 1504, Babur turned his attention toward India, launching raids into the Punjab region beginning in 1519. Q.3 Discuss the important achievements of Mughal Empire? The Mughal reign started from 16th century and lasted till the 19th century. Babur "The Tiger". He ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627. 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