But as much as she tried to reciprocate their attention, she had trouble telling them apart. Jennifer L. Eberhardt is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Stanford University and a 2014 MacArthur Fellow. Professor Eberhardt's primary research interests include stereotyping, prejudice, and stigma. When Jennifer Eberhardt appeared on The Daily Show with Trevor Noah in April 2019, she had a hard time keeping a straight face. “What’s distinctive about her work is how bold she is,” says Susan Fiske, a psychologist at Princeton University who wrote the authoritative textbook about social cognition. They collected body camera footage from 1 month’s worth of traffic stops in 2014—981 stops by 245 officers—and hired professional transcribers to capture everything police said in those stops, nearly 37,000 utterances. Here's Why She's Not Convinced Defunding the Police Is the Answer", "Meet the Psychologist Exploring Unconscious Bias—And Its Tragic Consequences for Society", "Justice Is Blind. “The effect was just flat,” she says: The student observers did not see the quizmaster as any more intelligent than the contestant. After analyzing more than 28,000 traffic stops, Eberhardt and her team found that the data supported the residents’ distress. Those memories never left her as she made her way through her undergraduate years at the University of Cincinnati and her Ph.D. in cognitive psychology at Harvard University. Using the familiar dot-probe technique, she primed a group of students with subliminal images of black or white faces, followed by vague images of various animals, including apes. Another study of unconscious bias found that teachers were more likely to discipline black students—not on the first offense, but on the second: The teachers apparently were quicker to see “patterns” of bad behavior in black children. Through interdisciplinary collaborations and a wide array of research methods, Eberhardt has revealed the startling, and often dispiriting, extent to which racial imagery and judgments suffuse our culture and society, and in particular shape actions and outcomes … Description. “We’ve paid many consultants over the years to come in and do studies, but they’d leave us with their findings and would walk away,” he says. Research Initiatives and Recommendations To Improve Police-Community Relations in Oakland, Calif. ... Amrita Maitreyi, B.S., and Jennifer L. Eberhardt, Ph.D. To understand and improve police-community relations in Oakland, Calif., the Stanford research team is analyzing body-worn camera (BWC) footage, community resident surveys, police training “The data said it was actually under 5%.” A more recent study by the Computational Policy Lab at Stanford showed the same pattern nationwide. Another tack is to introduce what Eberhardt calls friction into the system. Psychology, Harvard University, March 1990 And last year, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), Eberhardt and colleagues reported that implicit bias affects leaders in the asset allocation industry—a $69.1 trillion business that helps universities, pension funds, governments, and charities decide where to invest. When students viewed faces of their own race, brain areas involved in facial recognition lit up more than when viewing faces of other races. BONUS EPISODE with Jennifer Eberhardt (social psychologist who is currently a professor in the Department of Psychology at Stanford University) is the first in a monthly series on dissecting the Black experience in America. The privacy of your data is important to us. sxswedu.com — Jennifer Eberhardt is a social psychologist at Stanford University and a leading authority on unconscious bias. “This was like placing African Americans outside the human family altogether.”. In 2014, Eberhardt’s group was enlisted to help with task No. Law enforcement officers across the country are taking note. Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt is a professor of psychology at Stanford. She has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and was named one of Foreign… More about Jennifer L. Eberhardt, PhD Distinct representations of configuration and part information in multiple face-selective regions of the human brain 2015 - Frontiers in Neuroscience Authors: Golijeh Golarai1, Dara G. Ghahremani, Jennifer L. Eberhardt, and John D. E. Gabrieli The Stanford research was inspired, in part, by the cases most recently before the high court, said Jennifer Eberhardt, senior author of the study. J ennifer Eberhardt is a MacArthur “genius grant” winner and psychology professor at Stanford University who studies implicit bias. The Oakland police have a long record of scandals. Reading Time: 4 minutes Jennifer L. Eberhardt is a professor of psychology at Stanford University whose research explores race, bias, and inequality; she is the author of Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice That Shapes What We See, Think, and Do.. What We Discuss with Jennifer L. Eberhardt: What’s going on in the brain that creates and maintains bias. It’s a matter of experience, acting on biology: If you grew up among white people, you learned to make fine distinctions among whites. She asked subjects (largely white) to stare at a dot on a computer screen while images—of a black face, a white face, or no face at all—flashed imperceptibly quickly off to one side. Jennifer Eberhardt A social psychologist at Stanford University, Jennifer Eberhardt investigates the consequences of the psychological association between race and crime. Jennifer Eberhardt’s research shows subconscious connections in people’s minds between black faces and crime, and how those links may pervert justice. Sign up for periodic news updates and event invitations. As a result, the number of police shootings and officer injuries dramatically dropped. Her research found the association between Black Americans and crime is so powerful that just thinking about violent crime can lead people to … High-resolution photos of MacArthur Fellows are available for download (right click and save), including use by media, in accordance with this copyright policy. 5,716 words. Rarely do we actually meet someone so heroic in real life, who is actually making a real difference. Eberhardt has been especially active in criminal justice, playing a key role in the court-ordered reform of the Oakland police department, which has a history of toxic community relations. Students also had more trouble remembering faces of races other than their own. But she dares to go where other people don’t.”. “Those are the faces our brain is getting trained on.”. Those subjects primed by crimerelated objects were quicker to notice a black face. She’s a social-scientific Virgil, offering expert commentary that illumines the book’s otherwise lightless descent into the hellish depths of racial prejudice. Working with Deputy Chief LeRonne Armstrong, she collected 1 year’s worth of “stop data” from forms Oakland police filled out when they pulled someone over. Eberhardt, a MacArthur Foundation “genius grant” award winner in 2014, has long been putting her insights to work. Subjects who had been primed with black faces recognized the weapon more quickly than participants who had seen white faces. These associations also influence the extent to which individuals are able to discern—literally, to perceive—important visual details in crime-related imagery, as well as distinguishing features in African American faces. It didn’t seem to be bigotry—the students completed a survey indicating that they did not consciously harbor bias. In recordings of 981 traffic stops by the Oakland, California, police, Jennifer Eberhardt’s team found that officers tended to address white drivers respectfully, but more often used informal and brusque language with black drivers. Jennifer L Eberhardt's 34 research works with 3,933 citations and 8,109 reads, including: The development of race effects in face processing from childhood through adulthood: Neural … Discussing unconscious racial bias, which she has studied for years, the Stanford … Why you should listen. Dr. Eberhardt has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and was named one of Foreign Policy’s 100 Leading Global Thinkers. Eberhardt presents this research with such elegance and clarity that it is easy to forget just how unwieldy, technical, and utterly terrifying this body of literature is. From 1995 to 1998 she taught at Yale University in the Departments of Psychology and African and African American Studies. Jennifer Eberhardt received a B.A. Jennifer L. Eberhardt is a social psychologist investigating the subtle, complex, largely unconscious yet deeply ingrained ways that individuals racially code and categorize people, with a particular focus on associations between race and crime. Eberhardt has been responsible for major contributions on investigating the consequences of the psychological association between race and crime through methods such as field studies and laboratory studies. Eberhardt presents this research with such elegance and clarity that it is easy to forget just how unwieldy, technical, and utterly terrifying this body of literature is. In a more recent outrage, a group of officers passed around a 19-year-old prostitute. Over the decades, Eberhardt and her Stanford team have explored the roots and ramifications of unconscious bias, from the level of the neuron to that of society. The object could be benign, such as a radio, or crimerelated, such as a gun. But Eberhardt says using science to study racial bias drains it of its mystery and power. Discussing research her and her colleagues have conducted, as well as the research of other social psychologists, Eberhardt’s talk covered a range of outcomes of stereotypical associations, including the propensity to associate Black Americans with crime, and to support punitive policies when they disparately impact Black Americans. When police asked the teens why they targeted that neighborhood, they said the Asian women, when faced with a lineup, “couldn’t tell the brothers apart.”. But the subconscious link between black faces and crime remains strong even when people have time to think, as other studies have shown. She, like other experts, says one effective countermeasure is to slow down, to move your thinking from the primitive, reactive parts of the brain to more reflective levels. Psychologist Jennifer Eberhardt explores the roots of unconscious bias—and its tragic consequences for U.S. society. She has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and was named one of Foreign Policy ’s 100 Leading Global Thinkers. In this particular episode, “Living on Autopilot,” our team discusses the groundbreaking study that used body-worn camera footage … Still, she hadn’t planned to study race until the issue came up while she was a teaching assistant. (1987) from the University of Cincinnati, an A.M. (1990) and Ph.D. (1993) from Harvard University. About Jennifer Lynn Eberhardt A social psychologist at Stanford University, Jennifer Eberhardt investigates the consequences of the psychological association between race and crime. The court-enforced agreement also required the department to reform itself, spelling out 51 tasks. Just keep your hands on the steering wheel real quick.”. The work, Fiske says, is “very disturbing but also spot-on in terms of the science.” Eberhardt doesn’t know how those ideas made their way into the minds of her study participants, mostly white undergraduates. Contrary to her fears, her new classmates were welcoming. From 1995 to 1998, she held a joint faculty position at Yale University in the Departments of Psychology and African and African American Studies and was a research fellow at the Center for Race, Inequality, and Politics. Jennifer Eberhardt is a social psychologist at Stanford University and a leading authority on unconscious bias. APS President Elect Jennifer Eberhardt discussed her research on racial bias, stereotypes, and their impacts during the 2019 Henry and Bryna David Lecture at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. “Drawing on her pioneering research, Jennifer Eberhardt’s new book offers a powerful exploration of how racial bias seeps into our classrooms, college campuses, police departments, and businesses.” —Bruce Western, author of Punishment and Inequality in America and Professor of Sociology, Columbia University “Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt received a B.A. Without explaining the purpose of the study, she showed photos of the defendants to panels of students and asked them to rate which ones seemed most stereotypically black. Jennifer Eberhardt is fascinated with objects. Subjects recognize a gun that gradually comes into focus faster when “primed” with a glimpse of a black face. Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt is widely considered one of the world’s leading experts on racial bias.She is a professor of psychology at Stanford and a recipient of a 2014 MacArthur “genius” grant. Extending this research to the criminal sentencing of juveniles, she found that simply bringing to mind a black juvenile offender led people to perceive juveniles in general as more similar to adults and therefore more worthy of severe punishment, highlighting the fragility of protection for young defendants when race is a factor. WOMAN TO WATCH: Jennifer Eberhardt, Social Psychologist & Associate Professor at Stanford University. Jennifer Eberhardt has devised virtual reality programs for training police to conduct traffic stops more respectfully. One series of studies tested her ability to remain detached. Connect with us on social media or view all of our, Committed to building a more just, verdant, and peaceful world, "Talking About Racial Bias with the Author of ‘Biased’", "She Wrote a Book About Bias. Some Oakland activists have questioned the need for the city to fund an ongoing relationship with researchers from Stanford to the tune of hundreds of thousands of dollars. Same-race recognition isn’t inborn, Eberhardt says. The researchers are also looking at how traumatic incidents in one community, such as a police shooting, can affect police and citizen behaviors in another. When she reversed the process, students primed with line drawings of apes directed their attention to black faces more quickly. Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt is a professor of psychology at Stanford and a recipient of a 2014 MacArthur “genius” grant. She introduced the class to the quizmaster test, in which one student poses as a quiz show host, like Alex Trebek on Jeopardy!, and another poses as a contestant. Eberhardt is a Social Psychologist with nearly 20 years of teaching and research work, much of it focused on what she describes as “the stereotypical associations between blacks and crime.” So she trained herself to recognize features she had never paid attention to before—“eye color, various shades of blond hair, freckles,” she wrote in her book, Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice That Shapes What We See, Think, and Do. Jennifer Eberhardt drew from her 20-plus years of research and teaching as a Stanford University professor for her book Biased. Eberhardt draws on a range of social psychological research, including her own work analyzing police-community interactions and designing interventions to mitigate bias. © 2021 American Association for the Advancement of Science. When Jennifer Eberhardt appeared on The Daily Show with Trevor Noah in April 2019, she had a hard time keeping a straight face. Maybe immune flare-ups, Controversial study says U.S. labs use 111 million mice, rats, Disgraced COVID-19 studies are still routinely cited, New mutations raise specter of ‘immune escape’, American Association for the Advancement of Science. If one were to design the perfect vessel for the transmission of anti-racist dogma framed wholly at the embarrassing level of superficiality liberals have come to regard as adequately stimulating, it would look exactly like Jennifer Eberhardt. (1987) from the University of Cincinnati and an A.M. (1990) and Ph.D. (1993) from Harvard University. The data included reasons for the stop, the race of the driver, whether the car was searched, and whether the driver was handcuffed or charged with an offense. Law enforcement officers across the … Eberhardt’s students committed the same error—except when the quizmaster was black and the contestant was white. Eberhardt’s studies are “strong methodologically and also super real-world relevant,” says Dolly Chugh of New York University’s Stern School of Business, a psychologist who studies decision-making. Eberhardt wondered about the staying power of those associations. There’s no easy antidote for unconscious bias. Her research found the association between Black Americans and crime is so powerful that just thinking about violent crime can lead people to focus their attention on Black faces. In a follow-up study, students who viewed a video of police beating a black man after glimpsing an ape were more likely to say the beating was deserved. Eberhardt has written that the phrase “they all look alike,” long the province of the bigot, “is actually a function of biology and exposure.” There’s no doubt plenty of overt bigotry exists, Eberhardt says; but she has found that most of us also harbor bias without knowing it. “It’s one of the things we want to study more,” she says. She also studies representations of race and behavioral implications in real world settings, such as in schools or police departments. Then the researchers used a combination of human raters and machine learning algorithms to analyze those utterances on scales of respect, formality, impartiality, and politeness. In Biased, Jennifer Eberhardt offers us insights into the dilemma and a path forward. That friction caused people to evaluate their reasoning before making bias-based assumptions, and the incidence of racial profiling fell by more than 75%. She has a Ph.D. from Harvard, and is the recipient of many prestigious awards, including a 2014 MacArthur “genius” award. Jennifer Eberhardt is a Stanford professor and MacArthur Genius award recipient who has worked with several police departments to improve their interactions with communities of color. The world needs you." Few had heard of 19th century race science. At Stanford, she co-directs Social Psychological Answers to Real-world Questions, a group of researchers who aim to solve problems in education, health, economic mobility, and criminal justice. In this powerful talk, psychologist Jennifer L. Eberhardt explores how our biases unfairly target Black people at all levels of society -- from schools and social media to policing and criminal justice -- and discusses how creating points of friction can help us actively interrupt and address this troubling problem. 34—making traffic stops, the most common interactions between civilians and police, less discriminatory and confrontational. In 2016, Eberhardt and colleagues published a study in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General showing that people who saw photos of black families subconsciously associated them with bad neighborhoods, no matter how middle-class those families appeared. At Stanford, she co-directs Social Psychological Answers to … Sometimes, So Is Prejudice. The department has been the target of lawsuits and sanctions, including a $10.9 million payout in a class action lawsuit resulting from the Riders fiasco. Such learned perceptual biases, she thought, might shape reactions, too—in particular those at work in tense confrontations that can have a tragic outcome, such as when a police officer shoots an unarmed black man. Oakland police, who were both black and white, searched or handcuffed black drivers at nearly three times the rate for white drivers. “She’s not the only one working in social cognition or on police issues or on implicit bias. All rights Reserved. Jennifer Eberhardt Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice That Shapes What We See, Think, and Do New York: Viking, 2019. She also has examined implicit bias among law enforcement, showing that, for example, police officers are more likely to mistakenly identify African American faces as criminal than white faces; in addition, officers are more likely to judge faces that are the most stereotypically black as the most likely to be criminal. Video: Low-cost interventions could help combat the ‘psychological poverty trap’, Chemists re-engineer a psychedelic to treat depression and addiction in rodents, Biogen’s Alzheimer’s drug candidate takes a beating from FDA advisers, Global temperatures in 2020 tied record highs, What causes IBS pain? She and colleagues did a series of experiments using the dot-probe paradigm, a well-known method of implanting subliminal images. Research Report Looking Deathworthy Perceived Stereotypicality of Black Defendants Predicts Capital-Sentencing Outcomes Jennifer L. Eberhardt,1 Paul G. Davies,2 Valerie J. Purdie-Vaughns,3 and Sheri Lynn Johnson4 1Department of Psychology, Stanford University; 2Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles; 3Department of Psychology, Yale University; and 4Cornell Law School Research Report Looking Deathworthy Perceived Stereotypicality of Black Defendants Predicts Capital-Sentencing Outcomes Jennifer L. Eberhardt,1 Paul G. Davies,2 Valerie J. Purdie-Vaughns,3 and Sheri Lynn Johnson4 1Department of Psychology, Stanford University; 2Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles; 3Department of Psychology, Yale University; … Jennifer Eberhardt is a social psychologist at Stanford University and a leading authority on unconscious bias. But it was true. Bio A social psychologist at Stanford University, Jennifer Eberhardt investigates the consequences of the psychological association between race and crime. In the aftermath of the 1991 Rodney King beating and Los Angeles riots, patrol radio chatter revealed officers referring to black people as “gorillas in our midst,” among other derogatory descriptions. But some of the laughs were painful. The only other black person on … We love a movie with a lawyer who frees an innocent man or, one where a woman uncovers the corruption at a state penitentiary. “And I was like, wow, because normally this experiment always works.” She began to wonder how unconscious bias influences our perceptions. sxswedu.com — Jennifer Eberhardt is a social psychologist at Stanford University and a leading authority on unconscious bias. This is where the power lies and how the process starts.”. Eberhardt hasn’t shied away from some of the most painful questions in U.S. race relations, such as the role of bias in police shootings. But some of the laughs were painful. A longer summary of Biased by Jennifer Eberhardt if you have more time ... Research shows that people tend to grossly overestimate the extent to which they will speak out against prejudice, particularly when they are not the target of the offense. “As a scientist, I made it my role not to just be a member of a group who could be targeted by bias but to do something about it,” she says, “to investigate, understand it, and communicate with others.”. About a 90-minute drive from Eberhardt’s office is a police department with a troubled history, in one of the nation’s most violent cities. Through interdisciplinary collaborations and a wide-ranging array of methods -- from laboratory studies to novel field experiments -- Jennifer L. Eberhardt has revealed the startling, and often dispiriting, extent to which racial imagery and judgments shape actions and outcomes both in our criminal justice system and our neighborhoods, schools and workplaces. Eberhardt has an earnest manner that suggests a deep sense of mission. Select News Coverage of Jennifer L. Eberhardt. In cases when the victim was white, the criminals who appeared the most “black” were more than twice as likely as others to have received a death sentence. “She is taking this world that black people have always known about and translating it into the principles and building blocks of universal human psychology,” adds Phillip Atiba Goff, a former graduate student of Eberhardt’s who runs the Center for Policing Equity at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. The legacy of past policies, such as segregated neighborhoods and mass incarceration, creates conditions that trickle down to individual brains. “Before these results, our officers would have told you that close to 90% of those stops were based on intelligence,” Armstrong says. Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt is a professor of psychology at Stanford. Rather than chase a suspect into a blind alley, officers are encouraged to call for backup, set a perimeter, and make a plan before closing in. Whether this is the first book you have picked up on the topic of bias or yet another you are adding to your expertise on the topic, "Biased" by Dr. Jennifer Eberhardt … But dealing with bias is also a personal enterprise of pausing and examining one’s assumptions. She has a Ph.D. from Harvard, and is the recipient of many prestigious awards, including a 2014 MacArthur “genius” award. It’s a textbook example of what’s known as the fundamental attribution error, a tendency to credit or blame other people for actions or qualities for which they bear no responsibility. Description. Such work explores “the very soul of our country,” Chugh says. When Jennifer Eberhardt’s son was 5 years old, he and his mother sat side by side on an airplane. Jennifer Eberhardt: Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice That Shapes What We See, Think, and Do. Students primed with black faces detected ape images more quickly. When given virtually identical portfolios of successful investment firms that differed only in the race of the principals, the study indicated, financial managers tended to choose white-managed firms. Equally troubling was the tone of those encounters, as Eberhardt’s team documented in unprecedented detail. And she and her colleagues did the study before the Obama and Trump presidencies, when racist language resurged on the internet and in politics. Jennifer Eberhardt: Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice That Shapes What We See, Think, and Do. Jennifer Eberhardt makes it clear that racism operates at all levels, and it fills me with hope to know that she is fighting it at all levels. The subjects, who included both police officers and students, were asked to press a key as soon as they recognized the object. Then she would show a vague outline of an object that gradually came into focus. Eberhardt admits the findings shook her. The Oakland police department has tried to buy time for officers by changing its foot pursuit policy. Black people were also stopped more often than white drivers for minor violations and indistinct reasons rather than “actionable intelligence” such as a traffic violation or outstanding warrant. Even before knowing the roots of the behavior, Eberhardt’s team worked with the police department to change it by creating role-playing exercises to train police to conduct traffic stops more respectfully. The results, published in PNAS in 2017, confirmed that police routinely used less respectful language when speaking to black people than to white people. — Bruce Western, author of Punishment and Inequality in America and Guggenheim Professor of Criminal Justice Policy, Harvard University Jennifer Eberhardt’s work disrupting bias featured in CNN, New York Times, BBC, and more! Through interdisciplinary collaborations and a wide array of research methods—from laboratory studies to novel field experiments—Eberhardt has revealed the startling, and often dispiriting, extent to which racial imagery and judgments suffuse our … In Oakland, California, a gang of black teenagers caused a mini–crime wave of purse snatchings among middle-aged women in Chinatown. Eberhardt argues that increased diversity in neighborhoods, workplaces, and schools could help, and she calls for studying the effectiveness of the antibias training that some institutions are introducing. “We could practice adding friction to our own lives,” Eberhardt says, “by interrogating ourselves and slowing ourselves down … just being aware when we’re beginning to make stereotypic associations.” As she concludes in her book, “There is hope in the sheer act of reflection. Jennifer Eberhardt’s research shows subconscious connections in people’s minds between black faces and crime, and how those links may pervert justice. Monday, October 19, 2020 As society continues to reflect on how to address issues of race, bias, and policing, SPARQ Co-Director Jennifer Ebherhardt shares her expertise and data-driven learnings from her long-term work on this issue. In cleverly designed experiments, she has shown how social conditions can interact with the workings of our brain to determine our responses to other people, especially in the context of race. Discussing research her and her colleagues have conducted, as well as the research of other social psychologists, Eberhardt’s talk covered a range of outcomes of stereotypical associations, including the propensity to associate Black Americans with crime, and to support punitive policies when they disparately impact Black Americans. Discussing unconscious racial bias, which she has studied for years, the Stanford University psychologist mentioned the “other-race effect,” in which people have trouble recognizing faces of other racial groups. Through collaborations with experts in criminology, law, and anthropology, as well as novel studies that engage law enforcement and jurors, Eberhardt is revealing new insights about the extent to which race imagery and judgments suffuse our culture and society. Eberhardt and her team are developing virtual reality programs to train officers in various traffic stop scenarios, and they are expanding their data-gathering and reform work to other urban police departments. Shapes What We See, Think, and Do path forward trickle down to individual brains of HINARI,,... And officer injuries dramatically dropped Morris M. Doyle Centennial professor of Public Policy, professor of Public,... 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Studies representations of race and crime remains strong even when people have time to,! The Departments of psychology at Stanford, Think, and Faculty Co-Director of SPARQ hear ethnic slurs or insults. From her 20-plus years of research and teaching as a result, the number of shootings. Police Departments have shown to help with task No that. ” inborn Eberhardt. Data from hundreds of capital cases in Philadelphia most common interactions between and. Injuries dramatically dropped those are the faces our brain is getting trained on. ” the researchers didn t! Quicker to notice a black South African higher rate than white people Benjamin )! For... Eberhardt ’ s population isn ’ t inborn, Eberhardt obtained data from hundreds of capital in. Whose great-great-grandfather was born into slavery was enlisted to help with task No in Biased Jennifer! Such as a radio, or crimerelated, such as in schools or Departments. Has changed, and is the recipient of a gun that gradually comes into focus faster when “ ”. Response to General data Protection Regulation 34—making traffic stops, the number police!